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    Table of Contents

    Stainless steel 316 is a chromium-nickel alloy of steel that comprises at least 10% chromium which makes it corrosion resistant. Chromium helps in creating a metal oxide thin film on the surface of a metal to protect it against corrosive materials.  There are different classes and grades of stainless steel with slightly different alloy compositions. After stainless steel 304, it is the properties of stainless steel 316 that make it a widely used one. Marine equipment, chemical plants and refineries are some that use the stainless steel 316.

    Composition of stainless steel 316

    Stainless steel 316 is a popular stainless steel grade that contains:

    Component Percentage
    Carbon © ≤ 0.08%
    Silicon (Si) ≤ 1.00%
    Manganese (Mn) ≤ 2.00%
    Phosphorus (P) ≤ 0.045%
    Sulfur (S) ≤ 0.030%
    Chromium (Cr) 16.0-18.0%
    Nickel (Ni) 10.0-14.0%
    Molybdenum (Mo) 2.00-3.00%
    Nitrogen (N) ≤ 0.10%

    Properties of stainless steel 316

    • Chemical properties
    Grades Stainless steel 316 bar and section Stainless steel sheet Stainless steel 316 plate
    Tensile strength 500 to 700 530 to 680 520 to 670
    Proof stress 200 Min 240 Min 220 Min
    Elongation A50 mm 40 Min % 40 Min % 45 Min %
    Hardness Brinell 215 Max HB
    • Physical properties
    Property Value
    Melting point 1400 degree celsius
    Density 8.00g/cm cube
    Elasticity modules 193 GPa
    Thermal conductivity 16.3 W/m.K
    Thermal expansion 15.9 multiply 10 power -6/K

    Different grades of stainless steel 316

    1. Stainless steel 316L- It has a low carbon version compared to 316 stainless steel. The most common use is in heavy gorge welded components due to its immunity to carbide precipitation.
    2. Stainless steel 316H- It is used in applications that require elevated temperature. It provides creep resistance and greater thermal stability due to the high variant of carbon.
    3. Stainless steel 316Ti- For high-temperature applications the variant having high carbon that is 316Ti stainless steel is employed. This type provides better resistance to corrosion that is inter-granular.

    Application of stainless steel 316

    Compared to stainless steel 304, 316 stainless steel incorporates about 2 to 3% of molybdenum which increases its corrosion resistance against chloride and other chemicals of industries.

    1. Due to its high resistance, it is used in the Chemical and pharmaceutical industries.
    2. In high-saline environments like coastal regions and marine equipment.
    3. Due to its non-reactive qualities, it is also used in the manufacturing of medical surgical instruments.
    4. Other uses include pressure vessels, pipes and systems and for chemical applications, commercial kitchen applications, food processing environments, and brewing facilities.

    Price of stainless steel 316

    The price of stainless steel 316 varies depending on the supplier, location, quantity ordered, etc. According to IndiaMART, the current price of 316 stainless steel sheet ranges from ₹250 to ₹365 per kilogram. Check out this list of diffrent countries:

    Price per kg in different countries India- INR (₹) US- USD Europe- Euro
    Price per kg ₹250 $ 3.72 €3.18

    Comparison of stainless steel 316 with other stainless steel grades

    Stainless steel division is by their physical and chemical properties, functional characteristics and metallographic structure. The grades of stainless steel describe the alloy properties that are used to produce them. The different grades of stainless steel have different degrees of strength, corrosion resistance, temperature behaviour and toughness. Compared to other grades the microstructure of 316 stainless steel comprises cell structures with specific boundaries and enrichment with manganese, molybdenum, chromium and niobium elements that increase its resistance to corrosion. The improved corrosion resistance is due to its fine cellular structure, densification, chromium enrichment, and molybdenum enrichment at the interfaces. The two most widely used grades of stainless steel are stainless steel grade 304 and stainless steel grade 316.

    Stainless steel 316 vs Stainless steel 304

    Stainless steel 316 and 304 are two of the most commonly used austenitic stainless steel grades. They contain high levels of chromium and nickel. However, the addition of molybdenum in 316 stainless steel provides excellent pitting resistance. This also makes it ideal for highly corrosive environments.

    Here are some of the key differences between both:

    • Corrosion resistance: 316 stainless steel has better corrosion resistance than 304 stainless steel. Particularly, in highly corrosive environments such as marine and chemical processing applications.
    • Molybdenum content: While 316 stainless steel contains 2-3% molybdenum, 304 stainless steel does not contain molybdenum.
    • Chloride resistance: The addition of molybdenum in 316 stainless steel provides better chloride resistance than 304 stainless steel.
    • Cost: 316 stainless steel is generally more expensive than 304 stainless steel due to the higher levels of nickel content contained within 316, as well as the presence of molybdenum.

    Now, as you have a clear understanding of key differences between both of them, let’s move ahead and check out the chemical composition of both:

    Element 316 Stainless Steel 304 Stainless Steel
    Carbon © ≤ 0.08% ≤ 0.08%
    Silicon (Si) ≤ 1.00% ≤ 1.00%
    Manganese (Mn) ≤ 2.00% ≤ 2.00%
    Phosphorus (P) ≤ 0.045% ≤ 0.045%
    Sulfur (S) ≤ 0.030% ≤ 0.030%
    Chromium (Cr) 16.0-18.0% 18.0-20.0%
    Nickel (Ni) 10.0-14.0% 8.0-10.5%
    Molybdenum (Mo) 2.00-3.00% N/A
    Nitrogen (N) ≤ 0.10% ≤ 0.10%

    Top manufacturers of stainless steel in India

    Here’s a list of top stainless steel manufacturers in India:

    1. Tata Steel Limited
    2. Steel Authority of India Ltd
    3. Jindal Steel and Power Ltd
    4. Essar Steel India Ltd
    5. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited
    6. Jindal Stainless Ltd
    7. Electrosteel steels Ltd
    8. Visa steel Ltd
    9. JSW Steel Ltd
    10. Mahindra Ugine Steel Company Limited